新概念英语第二册语法详解和总结

发布于:2021-07-28 01:16:31

新概念英语二册语法详解和总结
《新概念英语》(New Concept English)作为享誉全球的最为经典地道的英 语教材,以其严密的体系性、严谨的科学性、精湛的实用性、浓郁的趣味性深受 英语学*者的青睐,《新概念英语》在中国有 30 多年的历史,每年有数百万学 *者,早已成为英语学*者的必选读物。我们抛弃以往只将《新概念英语》作为 单一的泛读教材的模式,代之以全新独到的、大信息量的联想式的教学方法,多 角度、全方位的教学手段,辅以丰富多彩、新颖实用的补充材料,逐步培养学员 听、说、读、写、译等五大基本技能,充分发挥学生的英语学*潜力,使学员经 过一定阶段的培训之后,英语水*与基本技能会有一个质的飞跃。 一、学*前的准备 《新概念英语第二册》旨在全面训练学生的 4 项技能、理解、口语、阅读、 写作。使学生具有使用语言的能力。一般来说,具有以下知识便可进入《新概念 英语第二册》的学*: 1、动词 be 与 have 现在时与过去时的基本用法。 2、现在进行时,能够识别并懂得如何构成。 3、 一般现在时: 能够识别; 懂得动词第 3 人称单数上添加-s, -es, 或 -ies 后缀。 4、一般过去时:能够识别并会运用常见的规划动词与不规则动词的一 般过去时形态。 5、过去进行时:能够识别。 6、现在完成时(一般):能够识别。 7、过去完成时:能够识别。 8、将来时:能够认识并运用 going to, shall 与 will 构成将来时。 9、 助动词: may 与 must 的基本用法; can, 能够识别 could, might 与 would 的形式。 10、能够用 do/does/did 等助动词造疑问句与否定句;能运用疑问代词 与副词。 11、能够回答以助动词与疑问词开头的问句。 12、副词:能够用-ly 与-ily 后缀组成副词;能够识别 well, hard, fast 等 特例。 13、 冠词: 定冠词与不定冠词。 懂得 a/an/the 的基本用法; some, any, no, much, many, a lot of 接可数、不可数名词的用法。 14、名词:能够用-s, -es,-ves 后缀组成名词复数形式;会用常见的不 规则复数形式:men, women, children, teeth r 等形式。 15、代词:人称代词、所有格代词、反身代词;所有符号“'”加 s('s)。 16、 形容词: 基本用法; 规则的比较级; 不规则的比较级: good, bad, much 与 little. 17、介词:常见的地点、时间、方位介词的用法。 18、关系代词:能够识别并使用 who/whom, which/that。 19、this/that; these/those。 20、省略形式:it's, I'm, isn't, didn't 等。 21、There is/it is; there are/they are。 22、祈使句。

23、 一周 7 天的名称、 日期、 季节、 数字、 时辰 (今天、 昨天、 明天等) 。 24、报时。 二、新概念英语第二册语法知识总结和详解 1.简单句的结构: 主语+谓语+宾语+状语(地点状语+方式状语+时间状语) 时间状语还可以放在句首 2.一般现在时,现在进行时 感叹句:what+名词+主语+谓语, how+形容词/副词+主语+谓语 频度副词:位于主语和谓语之间,常见频度副词及其程度的深浅: always, often, usually, frequently, sometimes, hardly, rarely, seldom, never I always buy CDs on Sundays. 3.一般过去时 直接宾语和间接宾语: 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语
直接宾语是及物动词的直接对象, 间接宾语是及物动词的动作所涉及的人或事务, 也可 以说间接宾语表示动作是对谁做的, 或者是为谁做的。 所以间接宾语要用名词或者宾格代词 来担当。

He gives me a book. me 间接宾语, a book 直接宾语 直接宾语和间接宾语的位置调换时要加一个介词 to 或 for,to 表示动作对谁 而做, for 表示动作为谁而做。 主语+及物动词+直接宾语+介词+间接宾语 Give the book to me. Send a letter to him. I bought a coat for my mother. 4.现在完成时,注意频度及时间副词的位置 receive/take 5.复*:一般过去时与现在完成时的区别 in the way/on the way/in this way/by the way/in a way/get out of my way/Don’t stand in my way./by the way/no way spare/to spare 6.冠词用法(一) 1.不定冠词用于修饰单数可数名词,当一个单词的第一个发音为元音时要 用冠词 an, 如果是辅音用 a 即可。 2.不定冠词还可以用来修饰一类事物,有时候也可以省略: A cat is a lovely animal. Cat is a lovely animal. 3.不可数名词加冠词表示一类事物:Apple is a fruit. 4.如果特制某人,某物或上文提过的人或物时要用定冠词 the 5.Some 表示一些,可以修饰可数名词及不可数名词。 6.在姓名,城市,地名,过名,月份,节日,星期前不加冠词,季节前也 一般不加,特指时加。

put on/take off/look for/look after/knock at/knock sth. off/knock off/knock %off/knock over/knock out 7.过去进行时,时间状语 短语: 在短语中动词后面的介词或副词叫小品词,有些小品词既可以紧跟在 动词后面也可以跟在动词的宾语后面,而有些则只能紧跟着动词使用。 8.形容词的比较级与最高级

单音节词的比较级最高级:
?直接加-er, -est: small-smaller, smallest ?以 e 结尾的加-r, -st: large-larger, largest ?以辅音字母加 y 结尾的词变 y 为 i 加-er, -est: busy-busier, busiest ?重读闭音节结尾的词,双写最后一个辅音字母再加-er, -est:big-bigger, biggest 以 ow, er, le 结尾的双音节词和个别单音节词也直接加-er, -est:narrow, common, clever, simple,polite, quiet… 多音节词及双音节词:more/less, most/lest 不规则变化:good/bad/many/little/far… 少数单音节词也要通过加 more/less, most/lest 构成比较级和最高级:pleased, glad, tired, fond, 注意:形容词最高级前面要加定冠词 the 不定代词的用法, 如果不定代词做主语, 谓语动词要用单数: Everyone is here. enter/enter for 9.介词(表示时间) ?in: 表示一天中的某段时间:in the morning/afternoon/evening 表示月份/年份:in March, in 1990 表示季节:in spring/winter in+一段时间可以表示在一段时间之内也可以表示在一段时间之后,可以与 现在时,过去时和将来时连用。 ?on: 表示星期:on Monday 表示具体日期:on June 1st 表示具体时间:on that day/that evening/on that night ?at: 表示确切时间:at 10 o’clock 表示用餐时间:at lunch time/teatime 表示其他时刻:at noon/night/midnight, at this time ?during+一段时间 ?from…till ?till/untill 直到 not any=no,语气更强 10.被动语态: 结构:be+过去分词 用法: ?主语不清或不需要提及时

I was born in 1999. The apple was eaten. ?强调不同的主语时,为了说明动作是谁做的,用 by+动作执行者 The policeman caught the thief. The thief was caught by the policeman. Be made in/be made of/be made from/be made by 双重名词所有格: one of +形容词性物主代词/名词所有格+名词复数 单数名词+of+名词性物主代词/名词所有格 one of my father’s friends/a friend of my father’s one of my friends/a friend of mine one of your records/a record of yours 1. 复* 动词不定式做宾补的用法: want/help/ask/teach/advise sb. to do, 代词要用宾格形式 borrow/lend, salary/wages 2. 一般将来时: be going to 结构的用法 be+副词词组: be away/be back/be out/be in/be over/be on/be up to sb./sth. set out=set off, set up=create 3. 将来进行时: 名词所有格: 如果名词复数以 S 结尾一般只加‘,如果名词是以 S 结尾的专有名词如人 名,可以加’S, 也可以直接加‘,如:Keats’ work, the Johns’ house 名词所有格也可以用来表示无生命的 1. 时间:today’s, new centry’s 2. 国家,城市名词:the country’s, the city’s 3. 机构组织:the station’s waiting room, the university’s library 4. 车,船,用具: the car’s wheel, the computer’s harddisk 5. 专有结构:at one’s wit’s end, 6. 价值:ten pound’s worth of meat, 7. 时间:in twenty minutes’ time 4. 过去完成时: ask/ask for except/except for/apart from which of/neither of/both of/neither of 5. 直接引语/间接引语(一) 如果引语的主句所用动词为过去时,那么间接引语要做相应变化:时态,人 称,时间地点及指示词 ?时态变化: 一般现在时——一般过去时 现在进行时——过去进行时 一般过去时——过去完成时 现在完成时——过去完成时 一般将来时——过去将来时

be going to——was/were going to/would can----------------could may---------------might ?时间地点及指示词的变化: here—there, tomorrow—the next day, the following day, this—that… ?人称变化:根据句意改变人称。 Nervous/irritable Office/study/desk afford 6. 条件状语从句:主句用将来时,从句用一般现在时,有时为了强调“能 够”,“必须”还可以用情态动词 police/policeman pay attention to/care for/take care of remind/remember one/you 可以指任何人: One must never tell lies. You must never tell lies. 7. 情态动词: must/have to as 作为介词,以…身份,与 like 相同 as 作为连词,因为,正当。。。时候,以。。。方式,如同。。。那样 dress/suit/costume grow/grow up 8. have 用法 give in, give away, give up, give up beside/besides 9. can/could/may/might might as well 表示“还是。。。的好”,“还不如。。。” He will never pass. He might as well give up. 10. 动名词: 动名词 1. 动词的-ing 形式在起名词作用时称为动名词。 动名词可以做主语, 标语, 宾语,介词宾语定语(即复合名词) 2. 动名词的几种形式: 主动形式 被动形式 一般式 doing being done 完成式 having done having been done 3. 做主语: Finding work is difficult now. Watching TV is my favorite pastime. 4. 做表语: My main hobby is reading. One of her duties is growing roses. My job is teaching. 5. 做宾语:

I like taking with famous people. We enjoy learning English. The flowers need watering. 6. 介词宾语: He is fond of watching football matches. He went away without saying a word. 常用的一些加动名词的动词词组(注意总结):take part in, look forward to , insist on, be interested in, 7. 做定语: waiting room, swimming pool, washing machine, reading room, living room, drinking fountain(引水机), parking slot… 8. 动名词的否定: 在动名词前面加 not, I am sorry for not asking you. Interested/interesting, excited/exciting, amused/amusing 1. 被动语态(二) will/must/can/would/could/have to be done have/has been done must have been done drive 用法 home/house 2. 介词用法:见书 3. 复* there be 句型 it 做为虚主语可以用来表示时间,天气,温度,距离,人或指代一个句子或 不定式。 4. Summary of Unit two 5. 并列句 我们可以将几个简单句连在一起,组成并列句,常用以下连词: and, but, so, yet, or, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but …as well, not only…but also 主谓一致: ?当主语由 and , both…and 连接时,通常用复数谓语. Both the girls and the boy are his friends. ?当主语由 neither… nor, either…or, not only…but also 或 or 连接时,谓语动 词与 nor, or, but also 后面的一致,在英语语法中,这被称为就*一致. Neither he nor I am going to the airport. Not only Mary but also her parents have gone abroad. 6. 一般现在时的复*,状态动词,标点符号的使用. 以下一些动词很少用与进行时态: appear(看起来), appreciate(鉴赏), believe(相信), feel(感觉到), forget(忘记), hear(听见), know(知道), like(喜欢), look like(看起来像), notice(注意到), remember(记得), resemble(形似), see(看到), think(认为), understand(理解), have(拥

有),love(爱), seem(看起来), show(显示), mind(介意), sound(听起来), hate(讨厌), detest(憎恨), desire(意欲), 引号: ?引号位于一行之上,应该在句尾其他标点符号, 如逗号,句号,问好之外. ?引语的第一个词以大写字母开头. ?在 said, asked, 等词后面用逗号,只有当它们位于句尾时才在它们后面用句 号. ?当 said, asked 等词置于引语之间时,句子的后半部分以小写开头. ?当一个新的说话人开始讲话时, 要另起一个段落. 7. 复*一般过去时/不规则过去式和过去分词 常用不规则动词过去式和过去分词在英语里约有 300 多个 put up(搭建), put out(扑灭), put on(穿上), put sb. up(为某人安排住宿), put up with(容忍), put down(抄写), put off(推迟), put away(放好,放到一边去) 8. 现在完成时复*/定语从句(见复合句部分) ?与现在完成时连用的时间副词: yet, just, before, recently, lately, ever, never, so far(迄今为止), up till now(直到现在), up to now(直到现在), since(自从), for a long time(很长时间), in the past/in the last few years(在过去的几年里), these days(目前), ?某些非延续性动词(动作开始变终止的动词), 在现在完成时中不 能与表示一段时间状语搭配: 例如:die, arrive, join, leave, go, refuse , fail, finish, buy, marry, divorce, awake, buy, borrow, lend, 这些动词并非不能用在现在完成时,而是不能接由 for 引导的时 间状语.但是用在否定句中,非延续动词的现在完成时可以与表示一段时间的状 语连用. Jane has gone away for a month. (wrong) Jane has been away for a month.(right) His father has died for two years. (wrong) His father has been dead for two years.(right) has gone to (去了某地,指人还在那里), have been to (去过某地, 人已经不在那 里了)。 9. 一般过去时对比过去完成时,现在分词/过去分词 refuse/deny, bring/take/fetch, very/too 10. 冠词用法 定冠词用法 (1)特指 (2)地理名词前加定冠词 ?河流 the yellow river ?山脉 the Alps, the Himalayas ?海峡海湾 the Taiwan Straits, the English Channel (3)由普通名词构成的专有名词前要加定冠词 ?国名及政治组织名 the United States, the United Kingdom ?某些机构学校及建筑名

the British Museum ?由普通名词构成的报刊杂志名 the New York Times, the Times 零冠词 1. 街名 2. 广场名 3. 车站, 机场, 公园, 桥梁名: Kennedy Airport, Beijing Railway Station, London Bridge 4. 大学名 Yale University, Cambridge University 5. 节日名 National Day, May Day, News Years’ Day 6. 多数杂志名 Time, Reader’s Digest 7. 物质名词一般意义 Water boils at 100 degrees. We can not live without air. 8. 抽象名词 Life is short. Art is difficult to appreciate. 1. used to do 用法 Used to do 表示过去常常做某事现在不做了 I used to get up at seven o’clock. Experience, save, very/too 2. 比较级/最高级, 比较状语从句(见复合句-比较状语从句) A/one 的区别 3. 介词用法 Passed/past, next/other 4. 被动语态总结 一般现在时: is/am/are done 一般过去时: was/were done 现在进行时: is/am/are being done 现在完成时: have/has been done 过去完成时: had been done 一般将来时: will be done 过去将来时: would be done 过去进行时: was/were being done 情态动词: can be done, must be done, could be done, may be done, might be done, 情态动词完成式: can have been done, must have been done, could have been done, may have been done, might have been done, Call at(拜访某地), call out at(大声喊), call on(拜访某人), call sb up(给某人打 电话), call off(取消) 5. 主语+谓语(感官动词)+doing 表示正在发生的事情,+do 表示已经完成的 动作. So/such So+adj. /adv. such+n.

固定用法:so many 6. 一般将来时 will/be going to do will/be going to do 一般情况下可以相互替换,但是要表示说话人决定做某事 或者表示建议,请求, 肯定或不肯定等含义时只能用 will. Watch/look at/follow, solid/firm/stable 7. 将来完成时 Hold/look, look forward to(期望), look out(当心), look up (查询,), look sb. up(拜访某人) 8. as if /though+虚拟语气, 过去完成时总结 as if /though 常在描述行为的动词后面使用, 如 act/look/feel/appear/smell/sound, 后面要用虚拟语气 He looks as if he were a king. Her skin feels as if it were silk. The song sounds as if it were a sad story. He looked as if he had never lived in England. No sooner…than, hardly…when, country/countryside, continuously, continually, No sooner…than 一…就… 与过去完成时连用 I had no sooner come into the room than it began to rain. The bell had no sooner rung than the game began. 如果 no sooner 放在句首, 主句的主谓结构倒装 No sooner had I come into the room than it began to rain. No sooner had the bell rung than it began to rain. Hardly…when 几乎没来得及…就… 与过去完成时连用 He had hardly got the money when the policeman caught him. I had hardly finished the last question when the exam ended. 如果 hardly…when 放在句首, 主句的主谓结构倒装 Hardly had he got the money when the policeman caught him. Hardly had I finished the last question when the exam ended. 9. 直接引语变间接引语 1. 引语前用 that, 口语中可以省略 2. 根据句意改变人称 3. 时态变化: 一般现在时-一般过去时, 一般过去时-过去完成时, 一般将来 时-过去将来时, 现在进行时-过去进行时, 现在完成时-过去完成时, can-could, may-might, must-had to, 4. 一些指示代词及表示地点及时间的词 this-that, these-those, now-then, today, tonight-that day, that night, this week-that week, yesterday-the day before, the previous day, last week- the week before, two days ago-two days before(earlier), tomorrow-the next (following) day, next week-the following week, here-there, come, bring-go, take 如果意思上没有必要改变就不用变了,比如在同一天说的话. She said she would come again tonight. He said he arrived yesterday morning.

几种特殊的间接引语 ?特殊疑问句, 语序要变为陈述语序 “Where are you going?” he asked. He asked me where I was going. ?一般疑问句, 要加 if/whether “Will you come tomorrow?” he asked. He asked if I would come the next day. ?祈使句要变为不定式, 所使用的谓语要根据语气来选择 “Stay here,” the policeman said. The policeman requested him to stay there. “Close the window, please,” my mother said. My mother asked me to close the window. 常用的动词: advise, ask, beg, command(命令), order, warn, tell, urge(催促), invite, persuade, remind, forbid 10. 虚拟语气在条件句中的用法, make/do 对现在事实的虚拟, if 从句中谈论的是想象的情况,主句则推测想象的结果 结构: 主句用过去时, 从句用过去将来时 If you came here earlier, you would catch the train. If you spent more time on studying, you would get better result. If I were you, I would accept this offer. 注意: 如果 if 从句中的动词是 be, 那么应该在第一和第三人称单数名词后用 were. Make/do 用法 make conversation(聊天), make the bed(铺床), make a promise(许诺), make trouble(找麻烦), make progress(取得进步), make money(赚钱), make a speech(演讲, 讲话), make mistakes(犯错误), make up one’s mind(下定决心) do one’s best(尽最大努力), do one’s homework(做家庭作业), do a few jobs(做 家务), do sb. a favour(帮忙), do work(工作), do exercise(做练*), do shopping(购 物), do business(做生意) 1. 情态动词 need, must, have to 1. need 一般作为实义动词使用 ?需要某物 He needs a hat. Does he need a hat? ?需要做某事 need to do I need to have a rest. You need to finish your work. ?需要被…,主语与 need 后的动词为被动关系:need doing=need to be done The flowers need watering. =The flowers need to be watered. 2. need 用做情态动词时一般为否定形式 needn’t(不必要), 可以用来回答含 有 must, have to 的一般疑问句, 与 don’t have to 同义 Must I wash the dishes? No, you needn’t. 3. need 完成式 needn’t have done 4. mustn’t 表示不应该,一般口气比较强硬,没有商量. You mustn’t get up late. Remark/observe, notice 2. have 用法总结

have a ride(骑), have a look(看), have a wash(洗), have a swim(游泳), have a fight(打架), have quarrel(吵架), have a try(尝试), have a rest(休息), have a smoke(吸烟), have a good sleep(睡觉) Pick sb up(接), pick up(拿出,学*,找到), pick out(挑出), 3. 情态动词 can/could/be able to do 1. can 表示可能性 If you want, I can go with you. 2. 表示天生或学到的能力, 可以用 can/could/be able to do, 三者都可以用 在现在时和过去时中,在将来时中要用 will be able to 3. 表示现在正在发生的事要用 can Look! He can stand on his head. 4. 表示成果的完成某个具体动作时通常不用 could 而用 be able to, 表示某 动作没有成功用 couldn’t Can he borrow a book successfully? Yes, he was able to borrow a book from his sister. No, he couldn’t. At 词组 At first(开始), at once(立即), at present(目前), at last(最后), at any rate(无论 如何), at heart(本质上), at least(至少), at times(不时), at a loss(不知所措) 4. 复*动名词用法 1. 动名词可以做句子的主语,表语,宾语,介词宾语 2. 在含有介词的动词短语后面要用动名词, 如: look forward to, be accustomed to, be used to, be tired of , be thirsty of, go on, insist on etc. 3. 有些动词后面既可用动名词也可以用不定式,所表达的意思没有区别,常 见的词: start, begin, continue, delay, mean, 4. 有些动词后面加不定式表示一件具体的事情,加动名词表示一种*惯. I like drinking coffee, but today, I like to drink some tea. 5. 复* Steal/rob, pay back Steal 表示偷偷摸摸的偷, 其宾语一般为物品 rob 表示抢劫,其宾语一般是人或者某个处所 pay back 还钱, 报复 6. 介词用法 7. 复* suggest 用法, 当建议用时后面加虚拟 should +动词原形, should 可以省 略. 8. 复* Summary of Unit 39. 复合句的构成: ?用现在分词构成复合句: 现在分词的动作的主语需与主句的主语一致。 ?用过去分词构成复合句,用语较正式的文体,代替被动语态, Wounded in the war, his are can not move freely. Born in a happy family, he has never tasted the bitterness of life. ?不定式构成复合句,不定式表示目的:

To buy a new car, the young man saved up for years. I went into the garden to pick some flowers. ?通过从句构成复合句:名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句, 同谓语从句), 关系从句(定语从句), 状语从句(时间,地点,原因,条件,方式,目的,结果,比较,让步) 10. 复合句: lose/loose/miss expect/wait for 1. 一般过去时复*: raise/rise, lay/lie, beat/win 2. 现在完成进行时 形容词变副词: 1. 直接在形容词后加-ly, careful-carefully, slow-slowly, 2. 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的形容词,把 y 变 I, 加-ly, happy-happily, lucky-luckily 3. 有些词形容词和副词的形式相同,不需要做任何变化 fast, hard, late 4. 有些词加上-ly 后意思与原词相差很远: near-nearly, high-highly, late-lately, 3. 时态对比:一般过去时,现在完成时,现在完成进行时 throw to,/throw at/throw away quite/quiet cause/reason drop/fall 4. Some, any 的用法 ?some, any 修饰可数名词或不可数名词,some 用于肯定句,any 用于否定 句和疑问句,注意,当期待对方的答案为肯定回答时用 some ?many 修饰可数名词,much 修饰不可数名词,在口语中表示很多一般不用 many, much, 而用 a lot of, 在否定句中表示很多用 many, much. I have a lot of money. I don’t have much money. ?? 当一个名词在词组中表示主要目的时不要定冠词: in bed, at church, at class, college, hospital, market, prison, school, sea, university, go to school/church/work/ go to the cinema/theatre ?most 表示大多数或非常: Most students came to class today. We are most excited. The most 是 many/much 的比较级,或者构成形容词副词的比较级,只能表 示最多或用在形容词或副词前面,

This is the most interesting book I have ever seen. I have the most books in my class. 5. Would/used to do would do 表示过去*惯的动作, 也可以用来表示过去经常性的行为, used 与 to do 有时可以替换。不能替换的情况: ?used to do 表示与现在强烈对照时,不可以用 would I used to get up early every day, but I get up very late now. ?used to do 描写过去状态,would 只表示过去特有的*惯和行为。 I used to be a teacher. I used to have a company. I would walk along the river everyday after dinner. ?一个故事的开头不能用 would 表示过去*惯的动作,只能用 used to do 或 者一般过去时: When I was a little girl, I always went to the cinema(I used to go to the cinema). I would sit there for hours. used to do(过去常常做某事)/be used to doing(*惯做某事) 6. 比较级最高级复*: 很多:many/much/a great deal of/a lot of/lots of/plenty of/a large sum of/a large amount of/a great many handsome/beautiful/pretty/good-looking reach/arrive take part in/take place 7. 介词用法: at 表示某个具体的位置 in 表示在。。。里面 off 表示离开 in/with 还可以表示穿戴,with 可以表示带有或长有: woman in a blue dress, a a girl with a hat, a man with a beard ?make sb. do 迫使某人做某事,变被动时要加 to His father made to quit his job. He was made to quit the job. ?Let sb. do 表示允许某人做某事 Let’s 表示建议: Let’s go out for a walk. Let us go out please. 否定:Don’t let us…/Let’s don’t… 8. 被动语态/强调句型: 据说:it is said/ it was said that 强调:It is/was+ 被强调部分+that/who 从句 I ate the apple two hours ago. It was I who ate the apple two hours ago. It was the apple that I ate two hours ago. I was tow hours ago that I ate the apple. 强调谓语用 do+动词原型 I did eat the apple two hours ago. Increase/grow Gain/earn

Pick/cut 9. 表示目的的几种方式: ?带 to 的不定式及其变体:in order to, so as to I came to this school to/in order to/so as to learn English. I came here not to study Chinese but to study English So as not to/in order not to Every morning I got up very early in order not to be late. Want/bring/buy/need/take/use 常用宾语+不定式,不定式常表示宾语的目的: I want something to drink. I need a pen to write. Bring me a chair to sit. ?So that/in order that 引导的目的状语从句, 主句一般用现在时,现在完成时或一般将来时时,从句要用 shall, may, can, will He speaks very loudly in order that his grandpa can hear him. She studies very hard so that she can enter university. 主句是一般过去时,过去进行时,过去完成时时,从句要用 should, could, might, would The teacher wrote the excerises on the blackboard so that the students would see them when they came in. He sent a letter to his mother so that she could learn the good news. 如主句主语和从句主语不同时还可以用不定式+for+名词/代词 He sent a letter for his mother to learn the good news. 10. 现在进行时表示将来发生的动作: arrive, come, go, leave 用在现在进行时句子里可以表示不远的将来发生的事 情。 Spring is coming. I am leaving Beijing in two days. I’m meeting a guest this evening. 名词修饰名词: car key, world record, flower shop, fur coat, gold watch, cigarette ends, horror film, chair leg 1. 时态对比:将来完成时,将来进行时,将来完成时 cost/price/value 2. 时态对比:过去完成时/过去完成进行时 check/control great/big soil/ground 3. 间接引语(祈使句) 祈使句要变为不定式, 所使用的谓语要根据语气来选择 “Stay here,” the policeman said. The policeman requested him to stay there. “Close the window, please,” my mother said. My mother asked me to close the window.

常用的动词: advise, ask, beg, command(命令), order, warn, tell, urge(催促), invite, persuade, remind, forbid insist/suggest/order/demand 后要用虚拟语态 should+do,should 可以省略 He insisted that we should stay for dinner. 4. 虚拟语态(过去条件句的虚拟)(见虚拟语态总结) draw in/draw back/draw up/draw off 5. 情态动词: 1. Must/have to do 表示必须做某事,must 表示现在和将来,have to do 可 以用在任何时态 2. Should do/ought to do 都可以表示应该做某事,ought to do 语气更强,一 般用在肯定句。 3. Had to do 表示过去必须做某事,should have done, ought to have done 表 示过去本应该做某事而没做。 I should have told you the news earlier. He ought to have known the rules. 4. Could have done 表示本能够做某事而没做。 I could have saved more people. 5. Might/must have done 表示对过去事实的推测 6. Couldn’t have done 表示对过去事实的否定推测,表示不可能 He couldn’t have stolen the wallet. Let sb. down, let sb. off, let sb. out, let sb. in Agree/accept Dress up/dress 6. Have 用法: have sth. done: ?使别人为我们做某事 I have the car repaired. He has his hair cut. The officer had the clock checked. ?表示某种遭遇: I have my wallet stolen. He had his teeth knocked out. My sister has her bike stolen. 集合名词: 当这个名词作为一个整体使用时动词用单数, 当这个名词作为一个组成整体 的若干人时动词用复数。常见的有:family, crew, government, staff, class 7. 表示成功的做成某事: managed to do, was able to do, succeeded in doing 表示没成功做某事: did not manage to do, wasn’t able to do, didn’t succeed in doing couldn’t do, tried to do could do 表示可能做某事 ?say: 表示说,讲时,后面不能跟间接宾语,如果加用间接宾语加 to, say sth. to sb. 表示道别,背诵 表达思想,意见

表示据说 词组:say a good word, say a prayer ?tell: 表示说,讲后面可跟双宾语, tell sb. sth. 常用于讲(实话,谎话,秘密) 辨别,分辨 说出时间 8. 动名词: 有些动词和形容词词组后要加动名词: ?admit, appreciated, avoid, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, finish, excuse, feel, keep, like, forgive, mention, mind, miss, practise, resist, risk, suggest ?look forward to, be accustomed to, be used to, give up, can’t help, can’t stand, take to, object to, keep on, put off, burst out ?opposed to, consent to ,dedicate to, devote to, admit to, confess to, fall to, in addition to, stick to, lead to, attribute to, get to ?be busy/worth/no good/use doing, have trouble/difficulty/problem/, spend time or money doing, have difficult time doing 动名词完成式的被动结构:having been done 当一个行为动作由另一个行为动作紧跟着时, 第一个动作可以用 after doing, 来表达,动名词完成式强调第一个行为动作在第二个行为动作开始之前完成。 After he had been asked to drive out of town, he began to acquire confidence. After having been asked to drive out of town, he began to acquire confidence. After I had been elected drive out of town, he began to acquire confidence. After having been elected drive out of town, he began to acquire confidence. practise/advise, pratice/advice enjoy/entertain/amuse 9. licence/license 10. 介词用法: 1. 复*: official/employee/shop assistant/clerk/officer hang/hung, hang/hanged 2. 复*:summary of unit 4 74. get out(滚出去,出去)/get into(进去)/get on(进展)/get on with(继 续,相处)/get off(逃脱)/get sth. off(取下)/get over(恢复,结束)/get though (通过考试,吃完) 变成: grow: 渐渐变成,强调过程,比 get 更正式 get: 口语中最常用,同 grow turn: 变得和以往完全不同,往往是变坏,变色,变声,变质,turn red/pale/sour go: 进入某种状态,不好的状态,go bad ,go sour come: 强调结果,come real, come true, come loose, fall: 陷入,变成某种状态,后面不能加形容词比较级,fall asleep, fall ill As usual/than usual

between/among manager/director/headmaster/headmistress/principal/president 75. 非限定性定语从句 1. 用 who, which 引导,前面用逗号隔开,起补充说明的意思,如去掉不 影响整个句子的意思。 The managers, who knew the event, held an emergent meeting. 2. Which 可以指代前面的一句话 He has to work on Sundays, which he doesn’t like. 3. 与限定性定语从句的区别,限定性定语从句是对先行词修饰限定,如 果没有定语从句整个句子的意思就会改变,而非限定性从句只是起补充说明的 作用,去掉以后不影响句意。例: The visitors who knew the danger could not go any further. 那些知道危险的游客们不敢再往前走,(一部分人) The visitors, who knew the danger, could not go any further. 游客们知道了危险不敢再往前走。(所有人) B.C., A.D. skin/leather/complexion wax/candle 78. keep on/keep off/ keep away from/ keep up/ keep up with/ keep out/ keep sb.in 79. 倒装句: 1. 条件句中的倒装, (见虚拟语态) 2. 否定意义的副词放在句首,整个句子要倒装:never, seldom, little, not only, scarely, hardly, no sooner, on no occasion Hardly had he stolen the wallet when he was caught by the police man. No sooner had he arrived the cinema than the film began. 3. Only+ 状语, only after, only then Only in this way could I finish the work timely. Only after he had taken off his hat did I recognize him. take off/take after/take up/take to/take in/take down/take over 80. on display/on show/on business/on foot/on duty/on the whole/on fire/on purpose/on the average/on any account/on second thoughts 80. Cloth, clothing, clothes , salute, greet, clear/clean 81. 形容词修饰名词顺序: 特性——形状,大小,长短——颜色——名词 a beautiful broad red carpet a small blue case an ugly long face laugh/laugh at wash/wash up

82. 在主句用 though, if, although, until, when, while 引导,可以省略主语和 系动词 Though (he is) poor, he is satisfied with his conditions. Until (you are) invited, you should not come. If she (is in need), she will borrow money from her parents. Temper/mood 83. 当宾语是不定式短语,动名词或从句时如果后面有宾语补语,必须用 it 做形式主语,think, find, feel, consider, make He thought it easy to pass the examination. I feel if right that he should be punished. I think it wrong for people to behave like that. 84. Too…to 的用法 to/enough 的区别 85. Out of 1. Out of the way/fashion/order/sight/danger/sight(与 in 介词相反) 2. Out of breath/work/pring/cash/stock(没有,不足) 3. Out of politeness/kindness/pity/curiosity(出于) Enough/fairly Enough: 修饰形容词或副词/修饰名词/做代词使用 88. Run out of/run after/run over/run in/run into 89. free/single queue/row funny-amusing 90. And 连接的两个名词如果作为一个整体出现则用单数谓语动词 needle and thread, bacon and eggs, bread and butter, cheese and wine, fish and chips, a knife and fork, sausage and mash 91. Make for/make out/make up/make up for 92. So/neither 的倒装句 so/neither+be+ 主语 so/neither+助动词+ 主语 so/neither+情态动词+ 主语 一般现在时, do, does/am, is, are 现在进行时, am, is, are 一般过去时, did 现在完成时, have, has 一般将来时, will, shall, 过去进行时,was, were 过去完成时,had 过去将来时, would 93. 重音: 重音在第一个音节上为名词,重音在第二个音节为动词: present, insult, produce, record, process, protest, contrast, contest, rebel, conduct, export, import, increase, permit 94. 介词:

appear:强调观察者的主观看法 He appears to want to go. It appears as if she would win. He appears like a king.(别人觉得他像) seem:根据某种迹象得出一种结论或看法 It seems to rain. He seems like a king.(他的外表举止给人感觉像) look:根据外表推断 He looks like a king.(他看起来像,但实际不是。)


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