发布于:2021-07-28 01:06:40

第一章 英语从句 Subordination 英语从句主要有定语从句,状语从句和名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句) 一.定语从句 1. 定语从句:由关系代词 who, whom, whose, that, which; 关系副词 when, where, why 引导。 (下面十个句子请读 5 遍并脱口译出! ) 1. The death notices tell us about people who have died during the week. 2. The man (whom) you spoke to just now is my friend. 3. The building whose lights are on is beautiful. 4. Please find a place which we can have a private talk in. 5. The knee is the joint where the thighbone meets the large bone of the lower leg. 6. He still remembers the day when he went to school. 7. It is no need telling us the reason why you didn't finish it in time. 8. He has three sons, two of whom died in the war. 9. Mr. Smith, whose wife is a clerk, teaches us English. 10. In the Sunday paper there are comics, which children enjoy. 2. 只能用 that 和 who 引导的定语从句 A.all, nothing, anything, a few, one 做先行词指物时 B.先行词前有形容词最高级修饰时,后面常跟 that 而不是 which. C.先行词前有 the only, the first, the last, the next, the very 等词修饰时,引导词只能用 that。 D.当先行词是 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody 时,后面要用 who 或 whom; ● All that glitters is not gold. 闪光的并非都是金子。 3. as 引导定语从句 as 引导的定语从句有两种形式: A.引导限制性语从句。 在此类定语从句中, 常与主语中作为其先行词的 such, the same 或 as 联用构成, such... as” the same... as” as “ , “ 和“as ...as”句型,可代替先行词。 例如:We hope to get such a tool as he is using. 我们希望得到他正在用的那种工具。 B.as 引导非限制性定语从句时,作用与 which 相同,as 作为关系代词代替整个主句。

(这是语法考试的一个考点。 )
[注意区别] : as 引导的从句用于句首、句中或句后,而 which 引导的定语从句不能放在句首。 例如:As is reported, a foreign delegation will visit the city. 据报道,一个外国代表团将访问这个城市。 二.状语从句

① 原因:because, since, now that(既然)as, for, this reason.... ② 结果:so that, so, therefore, consequently, so as to, as a result .... ③ 时间:after, before, when, while, as, until, as soon as, since, by the time, once, lately, presently, shortly after, currently, at present, nowadays ... ④ 条件:if, only if., once, unless, in the event (that), in case (that), provided that, on the condition that, etc. ⑤ 让步:though, although, even though(if), no matter what / how / when→ whatever / however / whenever .... ⑥ 目的:in order that, in order to, to, ⑦ 比较:than, as ... as, by comparison(相比较) ,by contrast(相对照).... 三.名词性从句

王牌要点:通常由 that 或疑问词导出。 1. How some mammals came to live in the sea is not know.(主语从句) 2. The attorney told his client that they had little chance of winning the case.(宾语从句) 3. The problem is what we'll do next.(表语从句) 4. We have no idea that he has come back.(同位语从句) 同位语(Appositive): 同位语是英语语法的重点内容,也是各类考试中的一个考点,同时,在写作中正确运用同位语可以使你的句 型更加简洁得体。 《新概念英语》 第三册第一课有这样一个句子: When reports came into London zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously. (当伦敦动物园接到报告说,在伦敦以南 45 英里处发现一只美洲狮时,这些报告并没有受到重视。 ) 在这里,a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London 就是同位语从句,它本来应该放在 “reports”后面,这里却被放在了谓语成分 came into London zoo 的后面,目的是让句型显得更为稳重。 I.简单记忆:同位语从句,就是对某些名词做进一步的解释的句子。 I was greatly shocked when I heard the news that his father died yesterday. (that 引导的句子解释了 news 的内容,注意:that 不做任何成分) We have to face the fact that the weather is unexpectedly bad. (that 引导的句子解释了 fact 的内容) II.联想记忆: 能接同位词从句的名词有:belief(信仰) ,fact,idea,doubt,rumor(谣言) ,evidence(证据) ,conclusion (结论) ,suggestion(建议) ,problem,order,answer,discovery(发 现)explanation(解释) ,principle(原则) , possibility(可能性) ,truth,promise(承诺) ,report(报告) ,statement(声明) ,knowledge(知识) ,opinion(观 点) ,likelihood(可能性) [大声朗读三遍,背下即可。 ] III.王牌要点: ● 同位语一般由 that 引导,但也可以用关系代词 which, who, what 和关系副词 when, where, why, how 或 whether 引导。 There arouse the question whether we could win the game. I have no idea howto explain it. ● 一些介词词组后面也能引导同位语从句。 (非常经典之功能句式, 可用于四六级和托福作文, 不妨一试!: ) on the assumption(在??前提下) , on the ground(由于??原因) , on the condition that(在??条件下) , with the exception(有??例外) owing to the fact(由于??事实) ; on the understanding(基于??理解) ; The young lady promised to marry the old man on the condition that he bought her a villa. 那位年轻的女士答应嫁给那位老头,条件是他给她买一幢别墅。 IV.分隔式同位语从句 为了使句型*衡不至于头重脚轻,有时同位语从句可以放到句子的末尾, (读两遍此定义,然后看倒句: ) An idea came to him that he might write to her to ask more information about the matter. I got information from my friend that there will be a marvelous American movie "Titanic". V. 同位语从句与定语从句之区别 简单记忆:定语从句的引导词 that 或 which 在句子中用作主语或宾语,而同位语从句的引导词 that 只起连 接主句和从句之作用,不用作任何成分。 示例:I've got an answer that A is right. (同位语从句,that 不做成分) I've got an answer that surprised me a lot.(定语从句,that 做定语从句的主语) VI.王牌重点:可以充当同位语的词组或短语。

1)名词短语。 使句型更为简洁) ( Bill Clinton, the president of America, came to China to pay an official visit in 1998. Lu Xun, one of the greatest essayists in China, played an overwhelmingly important role in Chinese literature history. 2)动名词词组亦可用作同位语:别忘了加逗号。 使句型更为流畅) ( I'm crazy about the game, playing baseball. Going to concert, that sounds a great idea. 3)不定式短语。 陌生只是掌握的开始) ( The problem what to do next remains unsolved. Her claim to have finished his work is nothing but a white lie. 4)形容词词组。 (有逗号隔开) All the workers, young or old, should be treated equally. Young man, short or tall, should have the right to take the opportunity. VII. 同位语的引导词。 重要!这是中高级写作中不可缺少的引导成分) ( 引导词用来表示同位语与它所说明的同位成分之间的关系: 1.namely, that it is, that is to say(也就是说), in other words(换句话说), or, for short 表示等同关系。 2.such as, say, so to speak(譬如说), including(包括), for instance(或 for example (e.g. / eg) ,表示举例 和列举关系。 3.especially, mostly, chiefly, or better, in particular, particularly 表示突出重点, (在高难度阅读中表示后面的部 分为更重要或更突出的部分,是出题的关键点。 ) 测试精编 I. 选择正确选项: 1. ________ all behavior is learned behavior is a basic assumption of social scientists. A. Nearly B. That nearly C. It is nearly D. When nearly 2. The people at the party were worried about Janet because no one was aware ________ she had gone. A. where that B. of where C. of the place where D. the place 3. — Susan hasn't written us for a long time. — What do you suppose________ to her? A. that happened B. happened C. to happen D. having happened 4. — May I have the loan? ________ you offer good security. A. But B. Unless C. Provided D. But for 5. Gorillas are quiet animals, ________ they are able to make about twenty different sounds. A. how B. in spite of C. because of D. even though 6. The little White House in warm springs was the Georgia home of President Franklin-D. Roosevelt ________ there on April 12, 1945. A. who died B. died C. while died D. he died 7. Essentially, a theory is an abstract, symbolic representation of ________ reality. A. what it is conceived B. that is conceived C. what is conceived to be D. that is being conceived of 8. Seeds usually germinate ________ the temperature is favorable. A. if B. whereas C. as a result D. in consequences 9. Francis Preston Blair. Jr, ________ born in Kentucky, lived and practiced in Missouri. A. was B. he was C. although D. who he was 10. ________, work songs often exhibit the song culture of a people in a fundamental form. A. They occur where they are B. Occurring where C. Where they occur D. Where do they occur

第二章 虚拟语气 THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 虚拟语气用来表达不可能或难以实现的愿望,与事实相反的假设,通常分为基本的三种形式。 1. 与现在事实相反的虚拟: If + did / were + ..., ... would should could + do (动词原形) might If I were you, I would go abroad at once. (I am not you.) If he knew it now, he could help me. (He doesn't know it now.) 2. 与过去事实相反的虚拟: If + had done + ..., ... would (might) have done ... If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I would have phoned you. (I didn't know your telephone number.) If you had come here a littleearlier just now, you might have met her. (You didn't come here earlier.) 3. 与将来事实相反的虚拟: (1) If + should + v., ... would + v.

(可能性很小) (译作“万一” )
If it should rain tomorrow, you could stay at home. If I should fail, what should Ido? (2) If + did / were to + v ..., would + v.

If the sun were to rise in the west, I would lend you the money. If you finished it in 3 minutes, I would give you my car. 4. 金牌特殊重点:! ! [简单联想记忆] : ● 下列动词后的“宾语从句”中需要用虚拟形式,即 should + 动词原形,shoud 在美国英语中要省略(TOEFL 语法考点) 。此类常见的动词有:order, ask, decide, demand, require, recommend, suggest(建议)insist(坚决要求) , advise, etc. 例句:He suggested that we (should) help them with English. The teacher ordered that the homework (should) be finished within half an hour. ● 下列名词后的同位语从句中要用“should + 动词原形” (should 可省去)的虚拟。 suggestion, order, request, demand, importance, proposal. He made a suggestion that we (should) have a fancy dress party. I think it is a thing of importance that it (should) be done soon. ● It is / was important / necessary / natural / essential / advisable / strange / surprising, ect. + that +主语+ should + v. It is strange that you should say such a thing. It was important that you should tell me all the information. ● wish 后的宾语从句中,as if 后的状语从句中,须用下列的虚拟形式: 主 + wish+ (that) + 主 + did / were(指现在) haddone(指过去) would+ v.(指将来) Iwishthat I met my uncle now. IwishI had met my uncle yesterday. IwishI could meet my uncle tomorrow. ● It is (high) time that ... + did / were ...

It is time that you went to bed. ● would rather that ... + did / were ... I would rather that you were not here now. ● would sooner that ... + did / were ... I would sooner that you got up earlier. I would sooner that you were not my brother. 测试精编 I. 选择正确选项: 1. I ________ he had taught me the word, but he didn't. A. believe B. hope C. wish D. think 2. The man in charge recommends that this matter ________ at the meeting. A. would be discussed B. will be discussed C. be discussed D. may be discussed 3. It is raining now, otherwise we ________ go out play. A. could B. can C. may D. will 4. ________ he come late, give him the message. A. Had B. Should C. Would D. Did 5. Hadn't my car broke down, I ________ the train. A. would have caught B. might catch C. could catch D. would catch 6. I would have helped him if I had time, but I ________. A. haven't B. had C. didn't D. wouldn't 7. The dam was built in time to protect the inhabitants from the flood; ________. A. otherwise the damage would be beyond measure. B. the damage, otherwise, should be very great. C. the damage could have been very serious otherwise. D. the damage caused, therefore, many of them homeless. 8. It is natural that an employee ________ his work on time. A. finishes B. finish C. can finish D. finishs 9. I would go abroad but that I ________ poor. A. am B. was C. shall be D. were 10. Don't act as if you ________ the only pebble on the beach. A. are B. were C. have been D. would be 第三章 代替与省略 SUBSTITUTIONAND OMISSION 英语中,为了避免不必要的重复,经常用 so, not, to, do, does 代替前面出现的动词或相关内容。 如:He translated the article better than I did. (did 代替 wrote it) — Doyou think she isclever? — I think so. (so 代替 she is clever) (1) 从上两例中看出,do / does / did 代替动词。 (2) "so 与 not" 代替某个词、短语、句子等,通常用于 hope, think, believe, expect, suppose, be afraid, fear, imagine, etc 后作宾语。 E.g. — Is it correct? — I'm afraid not. (not correct) (3) "to" 用作不定式,常跟随下列动词:want, mean, hope, expect, refuse, seem, intend, be, afraid, etc. E.g. I asked him to go to the party, but he refused to. (go to the party) (4) "do so, do that, do it" 用来代替动态动词,而不能代静态动词。 Eg. — He gave up studying English. — Why did he do so? (= give up studying English)

— The dish tastes nice. — Yes, so it does. (tastes nice) (此句不能用 it does it 或 it does so, 因 taste 属静态动词。 ) (5) 为使语言精炼,避免不必要的重复,对话中常用省略形式。 E.g. — He is thinking of buying a car? — Is he?(这里, thinking of buying a car”被省略了。 “ ) — Will he come back in time? — Perhaps.(省略了 he will come back in time.) 测试精编 I.选择正确答案: 1. — Shall I wake you up tomorrow? — Yes, ________ . A. please do B. you shall C. you will D. you may 2. I think records are often ________ an actual performance. A. as good as or better than B. as good or better than C. like good or better than D. as good as any other 3. — If he doesn't come to work, he may be fired. — Surely he isn't so foolish ________ not to realize that. A. so B. and C. but D. as 4. — Don't you think Alan's health has beenruined by smoking? — Yes, he told me ________ himself. A. the fact B. this thing C. It D. so 5. — Will you go home tomorrowevening? — No, I'm going to a lecture, or at least, I'm planning ________ . A. on B. to C. so D. It 6. — I slipped on the stairs, I think my arm is broken. — Oh! I ________ . A. do not hope so B. do not hope C. hope not so D. hope not 7. California relies mainly on income from fruit crops, and ________ . A. Florida also B. Florida too C. Florida is as well D. so does Florida 8. — Have you been here long? — ________ . A. No, not very B. Not much C. Yes, only little D. No, only yesterday 9. — You look happy today, Mary. — I like my new dress and mother ________, too. A. does B. likes C. is D. do 10. — So you are lost, little boy. Why didn't you hang on to your mother's skirt? — ________, but I couldn't reach it. A. I hanged to B. I did to C. I didn't hang to D. I tried to 第四章 倒 装 INVERSION 根据语法要求,把谓语动词置于主语前,称为完全倒装,把助动词或情态动词置于主语前,称为部分倒装。 1.副词如:in, out, down, there, here, off, over, away, etc. 句子倒装。 (完全倒装,但主语不能是代词) Down jumped the murderer from the tenth floor. In came Miss Green. (特别注意:当主语是人称代词时不倒装。 ) Away she went!(她走了! ) Here you are!(你在这儿! ) 2.only + 副词(介词短语)位于句首,句子要倒装。 Only then did he realize that he was mistaken. Only by working hard can we succeed in doing anything.

3.well, so, often, such, few, little 放于句首,句子形成倒装。 So fine was the weather that we all went out lying in the sun. Well did I know him and well did he know me. 4.否定词或具有否定意义的词及词组用在句首时,句子须倒装。此类词有: neither,nor,hardly,scarcely, rarely,seldom,not,never,not only,barely,at no time,nowhere 等。 e.g. — Jack could not swim. — Neither could Tom. Never have I seen such a good movie. 5.as 引导让步状语从句,须倒装。 准确地说,是将需要强调的词提到 as 的前面。 ( ) Rich as he is, he spends a cent on charity. Try as he does, he never seems able to do the work beautifully. 6.在表示祝愿的句子中。 May you make greater progress! (愿你取得更大进步! ) 7.在虚拟条件句中,连词 if 省略时,句型要倒装,即将 were, had, should 等词提到句首。 Were I you, I would go abroad to take advanced study. 我要是你,就出国进修了。 Should he come tomorrow, he would help us to settle the problem. 他要是明天来的话,他会帮我们解决这个问题的。 8.百分特例重点: Much as we may pride ourselves on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose the things we want. (NCE Book III Lesson 26) 尽管我们为自己的绝好鉴赏力感到自豪,但我们已经无法自由地选择我们所需要的东西了。 测试精编 I.选择正确选项: 1. Not until the mid-nineteenth-century discovery of vast deposits of borate's in the Majave Desert ________ relatively common. A. borax became B. did borax become C. and borax become D. borax's becoming 2. ________ received law degrees as today. A. Never so many women have B. Never have so many women C. The women aren't ever D. Women who have never 3. ________ the Bob's belongings that he carried them in a bundle slung over his shoulders. A. Were so few B. Few were so C. So few were D. They were so few 4. Only after a baby seal is pushed into the sea by its mother ________ to swim. A. how will it learn B. will it learn how C. it will learn how D. and it learns how 5. Not only ________ a promise, but he also kept it. A. did he made B. he made C. did he make D. he makes 6. Nowhere in the world ________ . A. travelers can buy so much beauty for so little as in Hawaii. B. no one can buy so much beauty for so little money as Hawaii. C. so much beauty can be bought for so little money in Hawaii.

D. can travelers buy so much beauty for so little money as in Hawaii. 7. No sooner ________ gone home than it began to rain heavily. A. had I B. have I C. I had D. I have 8. Not for a moment ________ the truth of your story. A. he has doubted B. he doubts C. did he doubt D. he did doubt 9. ________ succeed in doing anything. A. Only by working hard we can B. By only working hard we can C. Only by working hard can we D. Only we can work hard 10. Never before in similar circumstances ________ . A. a British Prime Minister had refused to step down. B. did a British Prime Minister have refused to step down. C. a British Prime Minister did have refused to step down. D. had a British Prime Minister refused to step down. 11. People might avoid many accidents ________ these methods been adopted before. A. that B. were C. have D. had 12. ________arose the problem that the boy will never overcome the great difficulties. A. It B. This C. Here D. Those 第五章 形容词 ADJECTIVES 定义:形容词是用来修饰名词的词,描述名词的性质、外观、特点等。 功能:形容词可以做定语、表语或补助语。 分类:主要分为两类:描绘性形容词和限定性形容词。 ● 描绘性形容词主要用来描绘大、小、新旧、颜色、质量等。 ● 限定性形容词主要用来限定所修饰词的数量、距离及范围所属等。 1.当形容词修饰单数可数名词时,必须与冠词连用: a lovely girl, the naughty boy 2.形容词可与系动词连用,做表语,说明主语的性状。常用系动词有:be,become,seem,appear,feel,look, taste,smell,sound,remain,go,turn,keep,stay, etc. The dish tastes delicious. The music sounds sweet. The milk went bad. 小心陷阱 feel,smell,taste,look,keep 有时可以用作实义动词,并可以用副词修饰。 He looked me up and down carefully. I tasted the soup slowly to see whether it was salty. 3.形容词用作后置定语。 (简单理解:一般的形容词修饰名词时放在名词前面,但有些形容词修饰名词时放在名 词的后面) a river navigable(一条可通航的河) sight visible 可见的景象 person responsible(负责人)注意:responsible person(有责任心的人) the best way possible(尽可能好的办法) the number necessary(必要的数量) the people present(在场的人) 4.只能作表语的形容词 1.某些表示健康状况的形容词。 well(身体好的) ,ill(病的) ,faint(虚弱的) ,poorly(身体不好的) 示例:His mother has been ill for a long time. 特别注意:sick 是个特例。它既可做表语,又可做定语。

He is sick for a couple of days.(他病两三天了) He is a sick person.(他是个病人。 ) 2.某些以 a-开头的形容词。 如:afraid(害怕的) ,alone(独自的) ,alive(活着的) ,asleep(睡着的) ,awake(醒 着的) ,aware(意识 到的) The old man is alone in the house.(老人一个人在家。 ) The teacher is alive with enthusiasm.(这位老师热情洋溢。 ) He is asleep in his mother's arms.(他在母亲的怀抱中睡着了。 ) I have been aware of the difficulty.(我已经意识到了困难。 ) 5.当一系列形容词修饰名词时,须注意排列顺序:代明形容词 + 数量形容词 + 性状 形容词 + 名词。 下图 ( 看起来费劲,看透了绝对实用) 代明形容词 1 用于冠 词前的 形容词 All Both 2 冠词 指示代词 物主代词 不定代词 the A(n) this that Such your Some Eg. a broken small old gray stone bridge. such a good yellow pen. 测试精编 I.选择正确选项: 1. The Chinese food served in American restaurant is not bad but I prefer ________. A. Chinese food authentically B. Chinese authentic food C. food Chinese authentically D. authentic Chinese food 2. ________ lessons were not difficult. A. Our first few short English B. Our few first short English C. Our few first English short D. Few our first English short 3. — Do you think that the Labor bill will be passed? — Oh, yes, it's ________ that it will. A. almost surely B. very likely C. near positive D. quite certainly 4. — Have you traveled much? — No, I have done ________ traveling. A. few B. little C. small D. less 5. — I was very busy. — Did you really work hard ________? A. all day B. all the day C. all the day long D. all of day long 6. — Do you need anything from the store? — ________ and some cheddar cheese. A. Only a French bread loaf B. A French bread loaf only C. Only a loaf of French bread

数量形容词 3 4 5 性质 状态 good bad 6 大小 长短 形状 big small round ... ... ... ... 7

性状形容词 8 9 10

名词 11 名词



新旧 温度 old new



材料 动名词

first second

one two

blue yellow

English Indian

wood stone Iron






D. A loaf of French bread only 7. According to the information, the newly-constructed highway is said to be ________. A. lengthy twenty miles B. length about twenty miles C. about twenty miles long D. in twenty miles of length 8. Mr. Smith has done ________ business here. A. a lot of B. a number of C. much D. lots 9. — Are you helping to organize the political convention? — I'm in charge of welcoming the ________. A. out-of-town visitors B. visitors from outside of town C. visitors out-of-town D. outside town visitors 10. — Does Jane have brown hair? — Yes, In fact, it's quitesimilar in shape ________ yours. A. as B. with C. like D. to 第六章 副 词 ADVERBS 定义:副词用来修饰动词(系动词除外) ,形容词,其它副词或整个句子。 功能:表示时间、方式、程度、范围等。 分类: ● 时间及频度副词:before,frequently,always,usually 等 ● 地点副词:here,northward,anywhere,above,below 等 ● 方式副词:rapidly,quickly,clearly,hard,well 等 ● 程度副词:quite,much,nearly,just,enough,perfectly,only 等 ● 疑问副词:how,why,when,where 等 例:He walked out of the room slowly. She looks very beautiful. We study English very carefully. Even a child can do it better. Perhaps she will telephone you tomorrow.

1. enough:修饰形容词或副词,须置于被修饰词后;而修饰名词时放在修饰词的前面。 He is old enough to go to school. I have enough money to buy this type of bicycle. 2. too:位于形容词或副词前。 She is too eager to see me. 3. very:置于所修饰的形容词、副词前。 He is very handsome and many girls like to speak with him. 4. much:修饰动词,形容词及副词比较级。 The subject has beentalked too much. Her dress is much more beautiful than mine. 5. still:“依旧,仍然”用于肯定句、否定句中。 He still remembers the days they spent together. I still can not catch his words. 6. yet: 位于疑问句末尾时意思是“已经” ;用于否定句时意思是“还” 。 Have you emptied the dustbin yet? I haven't done that yet. 7. only: 根据句意灵活运用。 请翻译下面三个句子! ( ) Only he can tell you how to do it. He can only tell you how to do it.

He can tell you how to do it only today. 8. hardly, scarcely, seldom, never 本身为否定意义副词,注意使用。 Hardly had we left the station when it began to rain. 你知道吗? 几个易混淆的副词: 1. easy: stand easy (= comfortably) easily: It can't be solved easily. 2. clear: The bullet went clear through the window (= directly) clearly: Clearly, he doesn't know anything about it. (= obviously) 3. high: He can jump very high.(高地) highly: We think highly of the good teacher.(高度地) 4. just: We have just know the news.(刚刚) justly: He was justly punished.(公正地) 5. hard: You must think hard.(努力地) hardly: He hardly knows about it.(几乎不) 6. pretty: He is not pretty sure about it.(非常) prettily: The girl is prettily dressed.(漂亮地) 7. near: He lives near the school.(附*) nearly: I nearly missed the bus.(几乎) 8. late: Don't come late next time.(迟到) lately: I haven't read novels lately.(最*) 9. formally: You should be dressed formally at the meeting.(正式地) formerly: Formerly, he was the manager of the company.(以前) 10. free(免费地) freely(自由地) 11. most(最) mostly(大部分) 12. sharp(准时地) sharply(严厉地) 测试精编 I.选择正确选项: 1. Automobile production of the present time has been increased ________. A. greatly B. highly C. on a large scale D. infinitely 2. — Was the class long enough? — No, ________ enough. A. it wasn't much too long B. it wasn't too much long C. it wasn't quite long D. it wasn't too long much 3. After the funeral, the residents of the apartment building ________. A. sent faithfully flowers all weeks to the cemetery B. sent to the cemetery each week flowers faithfully C. sent flowers faithfully to the cemetery each week D. sent eachweek faithfully to the cemetery flowers 4. Air travel has provided people with the opportunity to travel ________. A. a large amount of miles B. much distance

C. extensively D. wide rangingly 5. — Paul still hasn't returned from the meeting. — Really? I'm sure he expected to be back ________. A. before long now B. long before now C. now before long D. now long before 6. — Has your father arrived in Bombay yet? — He probably arrived there sometime ________ . A. a week past B. thelast week C. this past week D. theweekbefore now 7. — Whydoesn't Jessica stay withrelatives inNewYork? — She________ inBoston. A. has onlyrelatives B. only has relatives C. has relatives only D. relative has only 8. The nectarineis a fruit ________ likea peach. A. as B. and C. too D. somewhat 9. 一 Isawyouat theracetrack last week. 一 Igoquite often, but I onlybet ________ . A. scarcely B. hardly C. barely D. occasionally 10. Let's stayat home, Ithinkit's ________ for walking. A. muchtoo hot B. very much hot C. too much heat D. very much heat 第七章 冠 词 ARTICLES 不定冠词“a”用来表示可数名词的单数形式,用于辅音音素前,an 用于元音音素前。 如:a person, a day; an hour, anold man... I.定冠词用法如下: (英语刚启蒙时你就知道冠词了,可你真正掌握了吗?再背一遍又何妨?! ) 1.用于双方都知道的名词前:Please cleanthe classroom. 2.用于单数名词前,表示一类人或物: The horseis a useful animal.(马是有用的动物) This is a very hardjob for theteacher.(对于老师这是一项很难的工作。 ) 3.用于世界上独一无二的东西前:the sun, the spring. 4.用于方位名词前:People in the west like coffee very much. 5.用于乐器名词前:play the violin. 6.用于计量单位前:Gasoline is soldby the gallon. 7.形容词最高级和序数词前:This is the easiest way to work out the problem. He came to see me for first time. 8.用于江河湖海山脉名称前:the Pacific,the Thames,the Rocky Mountains 9.杂志、报刊名称前:the Times,the Overseas Digest 10.用于建筑物、和组织前:the White House, theMinistry of Education 11.用于姓氏复数前,表“某某夫妇,某某一家人”the Smiths,the Greens 12.用于形容词前,表一类人 / 物:the rich, theblind 13.用于 English,Chinese,French 等名词前,表“全体国民”the English,the Chinese II.以下情况不用冠词:

1.三餐前 breakfast,lunch,supper, ... Have you had lunch? 2.体育运动项目前 playchess,... I have nointerest intennis. 3.在由 by 引出的交通工具前 by air(乘飞机) ,by car 4.在称呼或职位前 He has been elected president of the committee. 5.*惯用语前 at school,day by day,at table(在吃饭) ,go to church(做礼拜)... 测试精编 I.单项选择: 1. The cat is ________ beautiful animal, but its intelligence leaves much tobe desired. A. a B. an C. the D. / 2. ________ universityofChicago has anexcellent lawschool. A. A B. An C. The D. / 3. — Tina looks especiallyprettytonight. — Yes, shealways looks her best in ________ ofthat color. A. dress B. a dress C. that dress D. the dress 4. — Didhe flyacross theEnglishChannel? — No, hecrossedit by________. A. a ship B. theship C. ships D. ship 5. If you want to gotothe post office from here, take________. A. Broadwaybus B. theBroadwaybus C. some Broadwaybus D. a Broadway's bus 6. 一 Howdid you paythe workers? 一 As a rule, they were paid ________. A. byan hour B. bythehour C. bya hour D. byhours 7. ________ moretobe pitiedthanblamed. A. Uneducatedare B. Uneducatedis C.The uneducatedare D.The neducatedis 8.Astronomy is ________ of stars and planets. A. a science B. science C. the science D. scientific 9. - After that, what happenedtohim? — The chancetoenter ________ cameand he tookit. A. tocollege B. thecollege C. for college D.college 10.Westernart ofthe19thcenturyshows the influence of________ Far East. A. a B. an C. the D. / 第八章 介 词 Prepositions 金牌要点: “英语是介词和动词的语言” ,由此可见,掌握介词的用法何其重要。 学*介词的最好方法是要弄清楚介词与介词之间位置上的关系,请参考下图: above over to → on ↑ → from In → through into ↗ ↓ ↘ out of under below I.分类:


1.常用简单介词: about,across,against,among,after,at,behind,besides,beyond,by,concerning,beneath,between, despite,except,during,down,for,from,past,than,under,until 等。 2.合成介词: inside,outside,onto,out of,within 等。 3.短语介词: according to,ahead of,along with,as for,because of,be means of,due to,in spite of,on behalf of, owing to,with regard to 等。 II.介词与“??的”之关系: 在英语学*中,一遇到“??的” ,大家就会立刻想到’s 所有格或者 of,实际上,在很多情况下, “??的” 必须借助于介词才能准确表达。

● 美国的冬天 → the winter in America ● 停车场的入口 → the entrance to the parking lot ● 穿过森林的小路 → the path through the forest ● 鲁迅的著作 → the works by Lu Xun ● 水中的月亮 → the moon reflected in water ● 历史的见证 → the witness to history ● 对爱的渴望 → a longing for love ● 对我们不利的证据 → the evidence against us ● 阳光下的漫步 → a walk in the sunlight ● 追求名誉的女人 → a lady after fame ● 两人之间的争论 → an argument between the two persons 重要介词的重要用法: (1)from:此介词表示“to”相反的方向。 He came from London. Hewent to London. 二词常搭配使用“from ... to...” WestudiedEnglish from morningtoafternoon He'll start fromBeijingto Shanghai.

● ● ● ● 由于 → The girl is trembling from fear. 免除 → Tramps are always free from care. 流浪汉们总是无忧无虑。 分开 → The couple parted from each other at the airport. 由??制成 → The red wine is made from grapes. 红葡萄酒是由葡萄制成的 由 from 引导的惯用法: from far 从远处 from now / then on 从现在 / 那时起 from bad to worse 每况愈下 from time to time(occasionally 时而)

She comes to visit me from time to time (2)out of :表示与“into”相反的语意 He will be out of town. I stepped out of the dark room. out of+ 名词 (= lack, to be without 用完,用光) He went to the shop because he was out of paper.

out of date (= old-fashioned 过时的) The book has been out of date. out of work (= jobless 失业的) He needs money because be is out of work. out of the question (= impossible 不可能的) Finishing the hard work is out of the question. out of question (= doubtless 毫无疑问的) That hecan doit well is out of question. out of order(= not functioning 失灵的) Her radio is out of order, so she can't listen to it. (3)by: 表示从旁经过或在??附*。

● ● ● ● ● ● 通过→This is the nearest road by which they came. 在??时候→The young man works by day and steals money by night. 由??所生→He has two sons by her second wife. 抓住→She caught her child by his coat in the flood. 按??计算→The farmers sell their apples by the pound. 就(气质,特征)而言→He is an artist by temperament(气质) 。 He passed by me without saying hello. He lives by the sea. 用于被动语意,导出动作执行者 The glass was broken by the boy. by + 具体时间: They usually have dinner by 8 o'clock. by + 交通工具 (bus, train, plan...) He travelled to Paris by air / plane. by the end of + 时间名词:到??末为止。 By the end of last year, they had learnt 100 texts. By the end of this term, they will have learnt 100 texts. by then: 到那时 He will graduate in 1999, by then he will leave Beijing. by way of (= via) 经由,取道 They are going to the United States by way of Hong Kong. by the way 顺便问 By the way, do you know where Mr. Li has gone? by far: ??得多(用于修饰比较级和最高级) The book is by far the best on the subject by accident [不小心,与 on purpose(故意地)语意相反] The wrong information was put into the computer by accident. (4)in: 在??内部,与 "out" 语意相反。 All the students are in the classroom. In + month / year: 在某月 / 年 In January, in 2000 In time 及时 They arrived at the station in time. In the street 在街上 In the past 在过去 In the future 在未来 In the beginning 开始,起初

In the end 最后,终于 In the way 挡住去路 He couldn't drive his car away because a big stone was in the way. once in a while 时而 Once in a while, he went to the Museum. in no time at all 立刻,迅速 He finished his homework in no time at all. in the meantime 同时 He was having supper, and in the meantime he watched TV. in a row 坐在某一排上 We sat in the 20th row of the cinema. in the event that 如果 In the event that you pass the exam, I'll telephone you. in case 万一,如果 Bring you raincoat in case it rains. get in touch with 与??取得联系 keep in touch with 与??保持联系 (5)on: 位于某物体表面上。 The dishes are on the round table. on a day / date 在某天及某天的上,下午,晚上 on Wednesday, on February 9th , 1999 on Friday afternoon, on a dark night. on a / the + (bus, plane, ship, train, bike) He went to school on a bus. on a ... street 在某条街道 Mrs. Smith lives on 5th 'Avenue. on the floor of a building. 位于某层楼 on time 准时(比 in time 具体) on the corner (of two streets) 在两条街道相交的一角 That shoe store is on the corner of 2 nd Street and 5th Avenue. on the sidewalk 在人行道上 on the way 在途中 on the right / left 在右侧 / 左侧 on the television / the radio 在电视 / 收音机里 The manager will make a speech onthe TV. on the telephone 打电话 You are wanted on the phone. 有您的电话 on the whole 总的来说,总体上 on the one hand, or the other hand 一方面,另一方面 on sale 出售 The books are on salefor $7 each. on foot 步行 (6)at: 此介词通常用来指某一特定时间和地点。 at + 地点 Mr. Smith lives at 15, 16th Avenue. 注:在某条街道 On... street,而在某街某号应用 at at + 特定时间 At 7:00 in the morning, he goes towork.

at home / school / work 在家 上学 * at night 在晚上 at worst 最差 at best 充其量 at intervals 间或,时而 at times 有时 at random 随意,胡乱地 at peace 和*状态 at most 至多 at least 至少 at present 目前,现在 (7)其它介词短语: in place of / instead of 代替 for the most part — mainly 主要地 in hopes of 希望?? off and on 时断时续 all of a sudden 突然 for good 永远 (8)动词短语 + 介词构成的*语 break off 结束 The two countries broke off their diplomatic relationship. bring up 抚养,提出 call on sb. 要求,拜访,呼吁 He called on the workers to struggle. care for 关心,照顾,喜爱 She only cares for new clothes. I have to care for my son after school check on 调查 come along with sb. 伴随,和某人在一起 come down with 因??而生病 Last summer, many people came down with intestinal disorders. count on 依靠、指望 do away with 摆脱 draw up 起草 drop out of (school ... ) 退(学) figure out 弄明白,弄清楚 find out 发现,查明(事实) get by: 设法生存 Despite the high cost of living, we will get by on our salary. get through 完成,接通(电话) It's not easy to get through the work in a day. How can I get through to you? get up 起床,组织 Aparty will be got up in my house. go along with 同意 hold on to 抓住,坚持 In spite of being a millionaire, he holds on to his usual living ways. hold up 抢劫,忍受,停止 The bank was held up last night. He held up very well after the death of his wife. The work had been held up. pass out 昏迷 run across 遇见,见到

at war 交战 at leisure 悠闲自得地 at a loss 不知所措 at large 逍遥法外

I ran across some old friends yesterday. run into 偶然碰见 When Tom was in London, he ran into his good friend at the theatre. see about 考虑 The young man is seeing about getting a ticket for the football game. take over for 替代 I took over for Janet because she was ill. talk over 讨论 try out 试验,试行 They are trying out a new idea to help the poor students. Turn in 上交,睡觉 After a tiring day, he turned in early. watch out for 警觉 Please watch out for thieves. weigh on sb. 压迫,使??焦虑 Some problems are weighing on me, so I can't sleep well. 测试精编 (1)单选: 1. — Where is your hometown? — It is about 20 miles ________ the east of Chicago. A. in B. on C. to D. by 2. When I met Jenny, I took a liking ________ her at once. A. of B. for C. on D. in 3. I am ________ your temper. A. fed up by B. fed up with C. fed up because of D. fed up to 4. — Do you like working as a waiter? — Yes, but I get tired ________ the whole day. A. with standing B. from standing C. to stand D. of the standing 5. The accident clearly resulted ________ your carelessness. A. in B. on C. for D. from 6. — Why do you ask if I've been smoking? — Because you smell ________ cigarettes. A. of B. by C. with D. as 7. The colleges vary so greatly that the problem was finally answered only ________. A. with respect to a specific college B. getting to specific college C. with a view to specific college D. with a regard to a specific college 8. — Have you some other reasons ________ the ones you just mentioned above? — Yes, I do. A. in addition B. besides C. off D. beside 9. — Do you ever dance like that in public? — Certainly not! That would be ________ my dignity. A. beneath B. under C. beyond D. above 10. —What do you have to do tomorrow? — I'll have to ________ in a conference.

A. join B. taking part C. attend D. participate 11. Modern technological advances are being made, but ________. A. with highly considerable expense B. at a great expense C. with great expense involved D. by a lot of expense 12. — Why didn't you go to the lecture yesterday evening? — ________, I changed my mind. A. On a second thought B. By the second thought C. On second thoughts D. By secondthoughts 13. ________ one time, Manchester was the home of the most productive cotton mills in the world. A. On B. By C. To D. At 14. — Wasn't the issue settled? — No, the two sides are still ________ conflict. A. in B. during C. on D. with 15. — How do you like these articles? — They are not much ________ demand now. A. on B. in C. at D. for 第九章 反意疑问句 Tag Question 1.一般用法: He is a student, isn't he? He isn't a student, is he? (1) “have to, had better, used to”要用下列方式反问: He has to finish the work, doesn't he? They used to smoke, didn't / usedn't they? You'd better get up immediately, hadn't you? (2) “has, have”作为助动词和实意动词,反问形式不同。 We have done all the work, haven't we? You have some time, don't you? 金牌要点如下 2. “seldom, barely, hardly, scarcely, few, little” 语意本身是否定,因此反意问句应为肯定形式。 She seldom comes to visit us, does she? He hardly knew it, did he? 3.当主句为祈使句,反意问句提出要求,命令应用 “will you” Do it at once, will you? 但如表示邀请,劝告,反意问句用 “won't you” Have a cup of tea, won't you? 4.否定祈使句应用 “will you” 来反问。 Don't open the window, will you? 5. “Let's” 短语 ● 当其为肯定形式,“shall we” 提出反问 Let's play basketball, shall we? ● 当其为否定形式,“all right, ok” 提出反问 Let's not go to the party, all right? ● 如为 “let us ...” 其反问形式应为 “will you” 提出请求 Let us go home, will you?

6.当 “think, suppose, consider, believe” etc 被用作为主句谓语动词,其后带有宾语从句时,反意疑问问句应与从 句保持一致。 Idon't think that he is an honest man, is he? Exercises: 单选: 1. — Your uncle told me that he overslept this morning. — Oh, my uncle rarely used to oversleep, ________? A. wasn't he B. was he C. didn't he D. did he 2. — Remove this, ________? — Right away. A. will you B. shall you C. don't you D. do you 3. You ought to wait for her, ________? A. don't you B. oughtn't you C. shouldn't you D. won't you 4. You have Tom move the stone, ________? A. do you B. don't you C. haven't you D. have you 5. Let's go dancing, ________? A. will we B. shall we C. don't we D. are we 6. Have dinner here, ________? A. will you B. would you C. won't you D. haven't you 7. There is someone at the door, ________? A. isn't there B. is there C. isn't he D. is it 8. The price of crude oil used to be a great deal lower than now, ________? A. does there B. wasn't it C. don't it D. didn't it 9. This is the third time this week he's had to study late, ________? A. isn't it B. isn't he C. hasn't it D. hasn't he 10. — Don't bother to drive me back! — But then you'd have to walk home alone, ________? A. hadn't you B. do you C. would you D. wouldn't you 第十章 独立主格结构 Absolute Structure 此独立形式只是一个小短语,而不是主谓完整的简单句,又称之为独立分词构句。当分词意义上的主语不是 主句的主语时,必须在分词前保留意义上的主语,否则语意不通。 定义有点费解,多看几遍) ( 示例: Being ill in bed, I can't go to school. Mother being ill in bed, I can't go to school. (1) 独立主结构形式可用以表时间,理由,条件,伴随状态等 He lay on the grass, the sun shining upon him. = He lay on the grass, and the sun was shining upon him. Weather permitting, I'll start tomorrow. = If weather permits, I'll start tomorrow. School being over, the boys went home. = When school was over, the boys went home. The sun having set, we arrived at the station. = After the sun had set, we arrived at the station. 王牌重点:当独立主格结构的主语表示“一般人” ,如:we, one, you 时,主语可省略,此用法常用于下列表 达方式中: generally speaking 一般来说 strictly speaking 严格地说 talking of ... 谈到

speaking of ... 说到 judging from ... 由??来判断 taking all things into consideration 把一切都考虑在内 considering ... 考虑到?? [示例]: If we judge from his face, he must be ill. = Judging from his face, he must be ill. He has lots of books if we consider that he is young. = He has lots of books, considering that he is young. (2)with 复合结构也是独立主格结构形式之一。这种结构在句中作状语(表示原因,方式,伴随等)和定 语,作定语时紧随被修饰名词后。 1.with+ 名词 + 介词短语: The woman with a baby on her back is my sister. The boy rushed into the room, with his schoolbag in his hand. 2.with + 名词 + adj. with the door open, he left the classroom. 3.with + 名词 + adv. With the gloves off, she felt cold. With the lights on, the building looks beautiful. 4.with + 名词 + 现在分词(主动) with + 名词 + 过去分词(被动) Withthe guide leading us, we got to the village. The boy was crying with the vase broken. 5.with + 名词 + 不定式 With the hard work to be done, we have to prepare for it. 第十一章 *行结构 Parallel Structures 许多句子在描述一个人或一件物品时往往会出现一系列修饰语;动词的修饰语, 即副词往往也会几个同时 使用,构成*行结构,*行结构要求语法结构须保持一致,如: 1.系列动词: after school, we sang, danced and played the piano in the classroom. 2.系列形容词: She is slim, tall, blond and beautiful. 3.系列副词: The students are listening to me carefully and eagerly.

*行结构不仅包括动词,形容词,副词,也包括分词,不定式,动名词,名词短语和句子等的*行用法, 务必提高辨别力。
测试精编 I 单选: 1. The purpose of the research had a different meaning for them than ________. A. ours B. for ours it had C. with us D. it did for us 2. The decision to ration a commodity rests on a judgement of its relative scarcity, ________ and the feasibility of continuing it. A. it is important B. is it important C. its importance D. what is its importance 3. Scandinavian countries make household goods that are designed both to function well ________. A. and to be looking beautiful

B. and to look beautiful C. and to be beautiful looking D. as well as to look beautifully 4. The chairman urged the members of the committee to set aside their differences ________. A. and began to work B. starting to begin to work C. and be settled for work D. and settle down to work 5. In his novels the author combines sound scholarship with ________. A. a witty style B.a style of wit C. a style full of wit D. a style which witty 6. During the examination we were supposed to stay in our seats, keep our eyes on our work, ________ to anyone. A. but could not talk B. rather than speak C. instead of speaking D. and not speak 7. Paris is renowned both as the political center of the nation and as ________. A. the cultural center also B. a center of cultural activity C. being a cultural center D. to be a center of cultural activity 8. The bonding power of any adhesive depends on the cohesion of the adhesive itself and ________ to the surface to which it is applied. A. how well does the adhesive adhere B. how well the adhesive adheres C. does the adhesive adheres D. the adhesive adheres 9. Molds can't produce their own food ________ their nourishment from living on dead organic matter or on other living matter. A. obtain B. obtained C. but obtain D. is obtained 10. I her writing, Eleanor Willie often dealt with her own personality as it was, rather than ________. A. as others defined it B. other's definitions C. its definition by others D. it was defined by others 第十二章 容易混淆的动词 Some Confusing Verbs 在学*英语动词时,一些初学者常碰到大量易混淆的同义词,下面就几组常用的动词加以比较。 1. rise,raise,arise,arouse “rise” 是不及物动词,过去式为 rose,过去分词为 risen,其基本词义“上升,上涨” 。 ● The sun rises in the east. ● A good idea rose in my mind. “raise” 是及物规则动词, “举起,提高” 。 ● He raised his voice to make himself heard. ● The boy can raise the heavy stone. “arise”,是不及物动词,过去式为 arose,过去分词 arisen,其语义为“出现,发生” 。 ● His curiosity arose due to the question his mother asked. “arouse”是及物动词,过去式和过去分词为 aroused,其语义为“唤醒,引起”

arouse somebody from sleep 把某人唤醒 arouse suspicion 引起怀疑 2. lay,lie,lie “lay”及物动词, “放置,生蛋” ,过去式与过去分词为 “laid” I've laid the book on the self. The hen lays an egg every day. “lie”不及物动词“位于,*躺” ,过去式为“lay”过去分词 “lain” He lay on the floor and slept soundly. Beijing lies in the north of China. “lie”及物动词“说谎” ,它是规则动词。 He lied to his teacher. 3. sit,seat “sit”不及物动词,过去式与过去分词均为 “sat”。 He sat in the classroom reading newspaper. “seat”及物动词, “使就坐” “容纳” 。 He seats himself here. He is seated there. He seats the baby on his knees. The hall will seat 5000 people. 4. affect,effect “affect” 及物动词, “对??有影响,感动,触及” The relations between then will be affected. “effect” 及物动词, “导致,造成,带来(变化) ,产生” The changes in methods effected some improvement in his study. 5. hang (hanged, hanged) / (hung, hung) 当 hang 过去式与过去分词为 “hanged”,其含义是“绞死” ;而当 hang 的过去式与过去分词为“hung”时, 其含义是“悬挂” 。 The man was hanged for murder. He hung his coat on the hook. 6. borrow,lend “borrow”借入 “borrow sth. from ...” “lend”(lent, lent) 借出 “lend sb. sth” 或 “lend sth. To sb.” 7. take,bring,fetch “take”(took, taken) 及物动词“拿走” “bring”(brought, brought) 及物动词“带走” “fetch”及物动词, “去取回来” 8. receive,accept “receive” 客观上收到 “accept” 主观上愿意接受 I received his gift, but I wouldn't like to accept it. 9. fit, suit“适合” “fit” 指“尺寸”的适合 “suit” 指“款式,花样等”的适合 The dress doesn't fit me. It is too long. Blue is the color that suits her well. 10. answer,reply “回答” “answer” — vt. “reply” — vi 须和 “to”连用 “you needn't know it.” He answered. So far, they haven't answered / replied to our questions. 11. spend, cost, take “花费”

“spend” (spent, spent) 花“时间,金钱”主语须是人。 He spend 5 hours writing the article. “cost” (cost, cost) 花费“金钱,时间,劳力”可接双宾,主语须是“物” The book cost me $20 and 2 days. “take” 通常指花“时间”主语须是“某种事情” It takes me 20 minuter to go to school. The work took me longer than I expected. 12. assure,ensure “assure” 使放心 assure sb. of sth. assure sb. that... I can assure you of my honesty. “ensure” 保证 ensure sth.(其后不能接人称) ensure that ensure doing sth. I can ensure his safety. He ensured that he finished the job in time. He ensured coming back later. 百分重点:如 ensure 含义为“保护,使安全” ,其结构为: ensure sb from / against sth. He ensured the boy from drowning. 13. beat, defeat, win — vt. “beat” (beat, beaten) 战胜,打败比赛,辩论中的对手 He beat John at chess yesterday. “defeat”“击败”敌军,入侵者,整个球队 They defeated the enemy in that battle. “win” (won, won)“赢得比赛”win over sb.(赢了某人) The football team won the match. 14. damage,destroy,hurt,spoil,wound,injure. 以上六个词中,“hurt” 可作及物,不及物动词外,其余五个均为及物动词。 “damage” —— 损坏(害) (有修复的可能性) “destroy” —— 摧毁,打破(希望,计划)毁灭(无修复的可能性) “hurt” —— 伤害(感情或身体某一部位)痛疼 “spoil” —— 破坏,糟蹋(晚会,旅游,参观等)宠爱,惯怀(孩子) “wound” —— 使受伤(枪伤,刀伤) “injure” —— 使受伤 e.g. Don't spoil your son too much. The man has destroyed the girl's life all her hopes. Some houses were damaged in the earthquake. I don't mean to hurt you. He was injured in the accident. It was dangerous because he was wounded seriously in the war. 测试精编 1. His newly-published novel is quite a success ________ a good income from the reading public. A. ensuring him B. assuring him C. assuring him of D. assuring him about 2. Before discussing the steps in detail, ________. A. a general principle should be laid down. B. I should like to lie down a general principle

C. I'd like to lay down a general principle D. a general principle lies. 3. The typewriter ________. A. was laying on the table, where it had laid all week. B. was lying on the table, where it had laid all week. C. was laying on the table, where it had been laid all week. D. was lying on the table, where it had been laid all week. 4. Up till now, these problems have been ________ for centuries. A. laying dormant B. laying dormantly C. lying dormant D. lain dormantly 5. During the period of inflation, the value of money drops as ________. A. prices rise B. prices arise C. the price is rising D. prices are raised 6. When all the students ________, the professor began his lecture. A. seated B. sit C. were seated D. seat 7. My watch ________ five o'clock. A. says B. tells C. speaks D. talks 8. “Oh, glad to see you, John.” “What ________ you to this city?” A. carries B. brings C. takes D. makes 9. “He has been working very hard recently.” “Because the burden of a big family has been ________ on his shoulder.” A. bear B. borne C. born D. bore 10. The visiting delegates were urged to ________. A. talk at liberty B. state their open minds C. make individual expressions D. speak freely 第十三章 赘词与否定 Redundancy & Negation (1) 所谓赘词,即累赘,也是句中不该重复出现的部分,因此不能使用。 1. advance + forward × proceed + forward × progress + forward × 这三个词汇本身具有“向前”的概念不能再与“forward”搭配 2. return + back × revert + back × 3. sufficient enough × 4. compete together × 5. reason ... because × (正确结构:reason ... that ...) 6. join together × 7. repeat again × 8. new innovations × 9. two twins × 10. same identical × (都表示同一的,仅能使用其中一个) (2) 否定:注意在下列否定句中形容词,副词和代词的变化。 1. He talked too much. □ He didn't talk very much. 2. He will come back too. □ He won't come back either.

3. She has already know that. □ She hasn't known that yet. 4. We have some novels. □ We haven't any novels. 5. He is telephoning someone. □ He isn't telephoning anyone. 6. They are still in the classroom. □ They aren't in the classroom any longer. 7. I like her a great deal. □ I don't like her much. 8. She was away a long time. □ She wasn't away long. 测试精编 1. Would you please ________ the listening comprehension script until after you have listened to the tape. A. not to read B. not read C. don't read D. don't to read 2. If you promise ________ angry with me, I'll tell you what I broke. A. get not B. not get C. not to get D. not getting 3. She hasn't begun working on her Ph.D. ________ working on her master's. A. still becauseshe is yet. B. yet as a result she is still C. yet because she is still D. still while she is already 4. If his wife won't agree to sign the papers, ________. A. neither he will B. neither won't he C. neither will he D. he won't neither 5. Not for a moment ________ what she said. A. he has doubted B. he doubts C. he did doubt D. did he doubt 特殊及*惯用法 Special Usage 英语中有大量的特殊用法及惯用法,学*者应注意其使用,下面所给练*题为自测题: 1. Advances in medicine have resulted in ________. A. a longer living expectancy B. an increase in life expectancy C. an increase in living D. more years for everyone 2. The fire department had to be summoned after the bush fire on the corner lot got out of ________. A. turn B. the question C. hand D. sight 3. I am ________ your temper. A. fed up by B. fed up with C. fed up because of D. fed up to 4. This kind of work is ________ me. A. unfamiliar with B. unfamiliar by C. unfamiliar to D. not familiar of 5. Jean ________ a cold when she was in Los Angeles. A. came by B. came down with C. came into D. came off with 6. All the evidence I have collected ________ to the fact that he is a shop lifter. A. boils up B. boils on C. boils off D. boils down 7. — Do you like those kinds of cigarette. — ________ cigarette agrees with me. A. Hardly no B. Nearly no C. Rarely no D. Almost none 8. — I am surprised that the administration approved of the protest.

— I am too. It usually frowns ________ such demonstration. A. on B. with C. for D. to 9. — Does Jone have brown hair? — Yes, in fact it's quite similar in shape ________ yours. A. as B. with C. to D. like 10. — I thought you had planned to practice the piano today. — I did nothing but ________ letter all day. A. write B. to write C. wrote D. writing 11. — I think John will win the race. — Yes, he started off ________ a great speed. A. with B. at C. through D. by 12. Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania, a town in the eastern part of the state, was named ________ one of the greatest American athletes. A. in honor of B. the honors C. for honored D. to honoring 13. — Are you still trying to convince him? — No, there is no point ________ with him. A. by arguing B. for arguing C. with arguing D. in arguing 14. Thanks to modern irrigation, crops now grow abundantly in areas where once ________ cacti and sagebrush could live. A. nor B. not the C. none other D. nothing but 15. — Can you ride a horse? — No, I never had the chance ________. A. for learning it B. for learning how C. how to learn it D. to learn how Keys to the exercises: 从句: (1) 1. B 2. B 3. B 4. C 5.D 6.A 7. C 8.A 9. C 10. C 虚拟语气: (1) 1. C 2. C 3.A 4. B 5.A 6. C 7. C 8. B 9.A 10. B 代替与省略: (1) 1.A 2.A 3. D 4.D 5. B 6. D 7. D 8.A 9.A 10.D 倒装: 1. B 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. C 6. D 7.A 8.C 9. C 10. D 形容词: (1) 1.D 2.A 3. B 4. B 5.A 6. C 7.C 8.A 9.A 10.D 副词: (1) 1.A 2. C 3. C 4. C 5. B 6. C 7.B 8. D 9.D 10.A 冠词: (1) 1.A 2. C 3. B 4.D 5. B 6. B 7. C 8. C 9. B 10. C 介词: (1) 1. C 2. B 3. B 4. B 5.D 6.A 7.A 8. B 9.A 10. D 11. B 12. C 13.D 14.A 15. B 反意疑问句: 1. D 2.A 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. C 7.A 8.D 9.A 10. D *行结构: (1) 1.D 2. C 3. B 4.D 5.A 6.D 7. B 8. B 9. C 10.A 容易混淆的动词: (1) 1. C 2. C 3.D 4. C 5.A 6. C 7.A 8. B 9. B 10.D 赘词与否定: 1. B 2. C 3. C 4. C 5.D 特殊及*惯用法: 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. B 6. D 7 . B 8.A 9. C 10.A 11. B 12.A 13.D 14.D 15.D